|The North Carolina Militia probably dressed like these men, but they could load and shoot three times a minute.|
When the Anglo-Irish began arriving in Philadelphia in 1717, a Philadelphia Quaker named Jonathan Dickinson complained that the streets of the his city were teeming with "a swarm of people . . . strangers to our Laws and Customs, and even to our language." The new immigrants dressed in outlandish ways. The men were tall and lean, with hard, weather-beaten faces. They wore felt hats, loose sackcloth shirts close-belted at the waist, baggy trousers, thick yarn stockings and wooden shoes "shod like horses feet with iron." The young women startled Quaker Philadelphians by the sensuous appearance of their full bodices, tight waists, bare legs and skirts as scandalously short as an English under-shift. The older women came ashore in long dresses of a curious cut. Some buried their faces in full-sided bonnets; others folded handkerchiefs over their heads in quaint and foreign patterns. Quoted from Albion's Seed by David Hackett Fischer, p 605-6.
A further word about the Borderers and the Anglo-Irish who immigrated to America during the 18th century. They were poor, but proud. And that fierce and stubborn pride became a cultural fact of high importance in the American region they came to dominate - the western backcountry of the colonies and the expanding frontier. Years later a Borderer descendant was heard to pray, "Lord, grant that I may always be right, for thou knowest I am hard to turn." They were mostly Presbyterian and their variant golden rule was "Do unto others as they threaten to do unto you." They were clannish, carried knives and guns and didn't trust the government.
The Quakers found these new immigrants so disconcerting and prone to violence, they encouraged them to settle in the "back parts" of Pennsylvania Colony, hoping to make them a frontier buffer between themselves and the Indians. As stated in my previous blog, the immigrant Dougans settled in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, before emigrating south to Guilford County (later Randolph County),North Carolina.
|Randolph County, North Carolina ,where the Dougans lived, still part of Guilford County in 1776.|
Now we'll turn to our 5th great-grandfather, James Dougan (1754-1837). Below is a summary of his application for a Revolutionary War pension, which was granted subsequent to his death in Winchester, Franklin County, Tennessee.
James Dougan S3306, Franklin County, West Tennessee #26596, $201.66/year, issued 19 March 1834. James Dougan aged 80 years last January states: I was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, on 6 January1754, according to a copy of the family record which is in my possession. In 1776 I was a resident of Guilford County, North Carolina, and volunteered for three months as an ensign under Capt. John Collier in an operation against the Cherokee Indians. The regiment was organized at Guilford court house and was commanded by Colonel Martin. We marched through Salisbury and met with other troops at the mulberry fields on the Catawba, commanded by Colonel Griffith Rutherford, and crossed the Blue Ridge, marching against Indian Towns on the headwaters of the Tennessee River. We remained several weeks, marching from town to town, destroying towns and their growing crops. The Indians having fled, we remained in Indian Country several weeks, marching from town to town, eating up and destroying the Indian crops. After performing this service, I returned home, having served a full term of three months, for which I got a discharge.
|Catawba River, North Carolina|
[Note: The Cherokee Nation followed Great Britain's order to attack settlers on the southern frontier, and struck first. Virginia and South Carolina raised militias, and North Carolina sent Rutherford with 2400 militia to scour the Oconaluftee and Tuckasegge river valleys, and the headwaters of the Little Tennessee and Hiwassee. Not long after leaving Fort McGahey on July 23, Rutherford's militia, accompanied by a large contingent of Catawba warriors, encountered an ambush by the Cherokee at the Battle of Cowee Gap in what is now western North Carolina. After defeating the attackers, he proceeded to a designated rendezvous with the South Carolina militia (which had also been sweeping through Cherokee towns). Rutherford's militia traversed Swannanoa Gap in the Blue Ridge on September 1, and reached the outskirts of the Out, Valley, and Middle Towns on September 14, where they started burning towns and crops. In all, Williamson, Pickens, and Rutherford destroyed more than 50 towns, burned the houses and food stores, destroyed the orchards, slaughtered livestock, and killed hundreds of Cherokee. They sold captives into slavery, and of these many were transported to the Caribbean.]
James Dougan's summary continues: In 1777 I again volunteered to serve another three months as an Ensign under Capt. Robert Bell. We rendezvoused at Salisbury, where the regiment was commanded by Francis Locke and marched to Camden, South Carolina, where we remained until our three-month term of service expired and I was discharged. All troops were commanded by General Rutherford. [Biography of General Griffith Rutherford, another immigrant from Northern Ireland HERE]
In 1779 James Dougan volunteered for five months and served as Lieutenant, serving under Capt. Enoch Davis in Col. Locke's Regiment, General Rutherford's Brigade:We rendezvoused at Salisbury and marched to Purrysburg, South Carolina, then the headquarters of the American Army Commanded by General John Ashe.
|Purrysburg is in Jasper County, South Carolina|
During our stay at this place, our detachment under command of Ebert was cut off from the army at the Savannah River. We engaged in battle at Brier Creek, in eastern Georgia, in which the Americans were defeated. Afterward, I joined a detachment that engaged a group of the enemy marauding along the Savannah River, which we defeated in battle. Captain Wilson had command of troops at the battle and later of a picket guard at the White House [headquarters?] where we remained, performing camp and garrison duties. After my discharge I returned home with William Gray, a private. [Battle of Brier Creek HERE]
|Battle of Briers Creek was in Screven County, Georgia|
|The Battle of Camden was in Kershaw County, S.C.|
General [Caswell] having orders for the troops to reassemble, I rendezvoused at Hillsboro [North Carolina] under this officer. I served in the neighborhood and in Rowan County, watching the motions of the enemy and guarding the county until my term of service was over and I was regularly discharged.
The Battle of Camden on 18 August 1780 was the worst defeat for the Americans in the Revolution and we should be truly glad our 5th great-grandfather survived it, else we wouldn't be here. James Dougan was a major, but we don't know how many men he actually commanded in the battle. Holding its ground until after the Virginia militia fled, the North Carolina militia suffered 63 killed, and 82 wounded and captured by the British. Was our ancestor heroic? I expect he was. He also must have had a fast horse to escape Tarleton's cavalry that harried the escaping Americans. Read about the Battle of Camden HERE
In James's pension application, his brother, the Rev. Robert Dougan of Franklin County, aged 69 the following December, vouched for him. Micah Taul and James Keith vouched for both the Dougans' reputations and character. On 16 March 1834 John B. Forester, Congressman, certified that he was acquainted with James and Rev. Robert Dougan and vouched for them.
|Our 5th great-grandfather's signature on his pension application, age 80|
|Sumner County, Tennessee|
They removed to Logan County, Kentucky, where their house and goods burned, including James's military discharges.
|Logan County, Kenucky, just above Sumner Co. Tennessee|
About 1806 or 1807 they settled in what became Franklin County, Tennessee.
|Franklin County, Tennessee, established in 1808|
I'll write about his brothers' services in the American Revolution in my next blog and how so many of the Dougans moved as a clan to that war bounty land in western Tennessee and then up to Indiana.