Thursday, August 10, 2017

The Dougan Brothers After the American Revolution

 
Painted in 1872,  but the theme is correct.

 We'll begin with the American Revolutionary song FREE AMERICA

Why would comfortably-situated families move west into the unknown? The Dougan brothers had fought in the American Revolutionary War in North Carolina for American freedom and their own well-being. The war was won and they were rearing young families. What compelled some members of this extended family to uproot wives and children to undergo more hardship by crossing the Appalachia into Tennessee? Something more than wanting to provide future lands for their children? Were they perhaps affected by that contagious spirit to be bound away?

Till a voice, as bad as Conscience, rang interminable changes
On one everlasting Whisper day and night repeated - so:
"Something hidden. Go and find it. Go and look behind the Ranges -
"Something lost behind the Ranges. Lost and waiting for you. Go!" 

                                                                     Rudyard Kipling, The Explorer

As I wrote a few blogs ago, five Dougan brothers and a sister, all but the youngest, Robert, born in Pennsylvania of Thomas Hill Dougan (1719-1769) and Mary Kerr Dougan (1726-1824), emigrated with their parents to what became Randolph County, North Carolina Colony, in 1765. Four of the brothers served in the North Carolina militia during the Revolutionary War. What follows may appear repetitious, but I want to add a few details.
Randolph County, North Carolina
The eldest, Colonel Thomas Dougan (1746-1795), was described as a plantation owner and community leader. He married Isabelle Sharp (1756-1804), 20 years younger, whose family had moved from Pennsylvania with the Dougans; they produced four daughters and a posthumous son, Thomas. The son, who died in Clark County, Indiana, in 1853, produced five daughters and five sons - an example of Dougan family proliferation (and that this was a 3rd Dougan branch to settle in Indiana). 
 
Clark County, Indiana

What did Thomas Dougan senior die of at such a young age that he remade his will a week before his death, leaving a third of his plantation to Isabelle as long as she remained his widow (she remarried), and making provision for the unborn child she carried, his only son Thomas. Of some importance was his giving his brother Robert and his brother-in-law Anthony Sharp testamentary power to sell or dispose of his "lands lying in the Western Territory," nearly 3,000 acres of bounty land granted him for his military service. This Western Territory land, as we shall see, was unsettled land at the western edge Tennessee on the Mississippi River in what became Dyer County. His brother Colonel James Dougan and their father-in-law, Colonel Edward Sharp (our 6th great-grandfather), also received large land grants in the same place. At the time, North Carolina owned the territory that became the state of Tennessee. As an aside, Thomas owned 9 slaves in the 1790 census.
Dyer County, Tennessee
Joseph Dougan (1749- died after 1800), 2nd eldest, did not participate in the fighting (he may have been a Quaker), but remained in Randolph County, as did his son Joseph, who died intestate in 1832. This son's wife Nancy was forced by law to auction all livestock and household goods to settle the estate (some of which, including a cow and calf and a pig and four piglets, she purchased herself in order to re-establish a home for herself and her children. Her relatives purchased items, perhaps to help her out.

Their sister Eleanor Dougan (1759-1839) married William Clark (1753-1836), who had served in the North Carolina militia with the Dougans and his own brother. This couple remained in Randolph County, North Carolina, and became Quakers. Clark enlisted in 1777 and served throughout the war.  He was the executioner  of two Tories who murdered a neighbor in what must have been an ethical dilemma for him and Colonel Thomas Dougan in this ugly war in the Carolinas. Here is a summary of the incident as related in the pension application of Joseph Johnston:

"On the way home from a battle in the fall of 1781, Col. David Fanning captured Col. Thomas Dougan of the Randolph County Militia. Col. Dougan had been spying on Col. Fanning trying to discover what his intentions were. Col. Fanning sentenced Col. Dougan to hang but several of Dougan's friends and neighbors who were in Fanning's militia protested. He ignored their protests and put Dougan on a horse with his hands tied behind his back and a noose around his neck. One of his men then stepped forward and threatened to shoot him if Dougan was hanged. [which sound like mutiny to me] Col. Fanning wisely allowed forty men to vote on Dougan's fate. He was spared by a close vote and sent to Wilmington. Upon arriving in Wilmington [and placed on a prison ship], Maj. James Craig also wanted to hang Col. Dougan, but Capt. Elrod [or Eliot] and some of Fanning's men spared his life a second time." On March 13 & 14, 1782 Thomas Dougan was involved in what became known as The Deep River Raid."

The story continues from a researched source by a Mrs. Fraser:

"Major John Eliot , accompanied by two other Tories, Samuel Still and Michael Robbins, found Colonel Dougan, a Whig prisoner, had been captured by Fanning . . . and taken out with a rope around his neck to be hanged on the prison ship. Major Eliot felt a great compassion for Dougan with whom he was old friends and interceded so well in his behalf that he secured his freedom and permission to return home.

When the Tories, Eliot, Still, and Robbins were returning home, they met two men who had been paroled and now contrary to the terms of the parole were fully armed. Eliot began to chastise one of the men, Henry Johnson, for carrying a gun and broke his sword over Johnson's head. Eliot's companion, Still, then put a rifle ball into the head of the injured man.

The Whigs of the neighborhood, under the leadership of the same Colonel Dougan whom Eliot had saved from death at Wilmington, now set out to capture them. They were seized, tied to trees, and shot, and in accordance with the 'heartless' custom of the times, left in the position in which they had been killed."

Allegedly, it was Colonel Thomas Dougan's brother-in-law William Clark who executed the men. Perhaps that event eventually effected his joining the Quakers, a pacifistic religion. Paperwork indicates he did not apply for a war pension because of his Quaker beliefs. He and Eleanor had three sons, Dougan Alexander, John and Thomas, and three daughters Mary, Margaret and Hannah. You can see how these names become duplicated in this large family.

John Dougan (1763-1842), who served in the North Carolina militia as a dragoon, married Martha Collier (1764-1855) about 1784. Her brother also served the American cause. They had children Margaret, Susannah, Rebecca, John, Martha, Sarah and Jane. John and his family emigrated to Sumner County, Tennessee, by 1793 with brothers James Dougan, Robert Lin Dougan and extended family members. 
Sumner County, Tennessee

Why they went there might be explained by the service of General Jethro Sumner of North Carolina HERE  Apparently unsatisfied with Sumner, they all moved south across Tennessee  to Franklin County.  Leaving his brothers there, John Dougan moved on to Richmond County, Indiana, where he appears in the 1820 census, pretty early for Indiana settlement, but note that Richmond County is on the eastern side of Indiana where earlier settlements occurred.
Richmond County, Indiana and its present population centers

The Reverend Robert Lin Dougan (1765-1837) also served in the war. He became a Methodist-Episcopal minister and by the 1790 Randolph County census had married the Widow Barry, who had three step-children. Two events occurred; which came first, I don't know. His wife died and he moved his family to Sumner County, Tennessee, with his brothers, where in 1796 he married 16-year-old Elizabeth Scoby (1780-1875). Elizabeth came from a large family that included seven brothers, whose father had been killed in the American Revolution. After the war Mrs. Scobey and her sons loaded up their worldly goods on a one-horse cart and made their way across the mountains to Fort Bledsoe (in Sumner County). A week after their arrival the family had another setback when son David was killed during an Indian attack. Nevertheless, the family became well-established in Sumner County, eventually operating a ferry on the Cumberland River. 

The reverend and Elizabeth had sons Page, Robert, William and Anthony, and daughters Mary, Eleanor, Caroline, Ruth and Margaret. By 1820 they had moved south across the state and were living in Franklin County, Tennessee, where Dougan assisted in establishing the Methodist Episcopal South Church at Winchester in 1834. He died in Winchester and possessed slaves at his death.
Franklin County, Tennessee

This brings us to our 5th great-grandfather, Colonel James Dougan (1754-1837) who married in 1780 Hannah Sharp (c. 1762 - c.1831), Isabelle's older sister. They had four sons (Samuel, Thomas, Sharp, Robert Clark Dougan (our 4th great-grandfather), and three daughters, Jane, Margaret and Mary, all by 1790. They left North Carolina by 1793 with John Dougan, Robert Lin Dougan, brother-in-law Robert Sharp (and others) to settle in Sumner County, Tennessee.  By 1812, James and brothers Robert Lin, John, and James' sons Sharp and Thomas were on the tax records for Franklin County, Tennessee. 
Franklin County, Tennessee

James died on February 10, 1837, in Winchester, Franklin County,Tennessee, having lived a long life of 83 years. 

How did James Dougan's descendants get to southern Indiana you may ask. Here are excerpts from a Princeton, Indiana, newspaper article from 1908, written by James' great-grandson, E. O. Emmerson. 

James' oldest son Samuel was living in Mississippi Territory in what would later become Huntsville, Alabama (the Indian country having opened for settlement about 1812). James traveled down from Franklin, Tennessee, to pay him a visit sometime in the 1820s, and

 "began to talk of his grant of land [2360 acres in what would become Dyer County, near where Thomas Dougan's land lay] he had got for his service in the army, and wanted his son to move to it. This was a hard thing to do, as the country was unsettled and there were no roads, but strong desire overcomes difficulty. An old Indian agreed to pass on before and pick out a route, which he did by blazing trees.

They started on this journey of about two hundred miles and quite a number of families went with them. [Apparently James went back to Winchester, Tennessee.] They followed the blazes and other signs of the Indian, and finally landed on James Dougan's land grant, which is part of the town now occupied by Dyersburg. They landed there late in the fall and went into camp until houses could be built. They had no grain except what they were to use for seed the following year, and were compelled to live without bread until corn could be raised . . . on ground then covered with timbers. They lived entirely on wild game killed in the woods. Colonel Davy Crockett lived near them, and was of great assistance to them in this wild country. They found the land that they had traveled so far to obtain to be largely swamp land, covered with cypress timber and subject to great overflow. They lived till the three older children of Samual were married.

About the year 1830 the state of Indiana was thought to be about the greatest land in the world. . . in the year 1830, Samuel Dougan and Aaron Wallace, his son-in-law, decided to make a trip to the Hoosier state to take a look at it. They came and took a place west of Princeton and decided to move next Spring, but Dougan took sick on his way back home and lived but a short time after he reached home. The rest of the family [including Samuel's widow] decided to come to Indiana the next spring as Dougan had intended to do, but thought best to send James and Samuel, the two unmarried sons, on ahead and let them put in a crop, which they did. Then in the fall of 1831, all the families came to Indiana and all settled in Gibson county . . . "
Gibson County, Indiana
So that Dougan branch of five children and their families spread out through Gibson County, but that doesn't explain how our branch of James Dougan's family, through the youngest son Robert Clark Dougan (1790-1850), settled in southern Indiana. Robert appears to have spent his life between 1830 and 1850 in Fayette County, Tennessee, where he died.
Fayette County, Tennessee
 But his son, Samuel B. Dougan (1820-1870), our 3rd great-grandfather, was on the Hart Township, Warrick County, Indiana, census rolls for 1840 when he was 20 years old.
 


Warrick County, Indiana
And Warrick County is adjacent to the southeast line of Gibson County. He married Polly Erwin there in 1842 (who was a cousin of Mary Polly Erwin, who married Samuel Dougan (1810-1862), who brought the other Dougan branch from Dyer County to Gibson County in 1831.  Extended families stayed in touch despite distance and poor mail service. I bet Samuel B. Dougan traveled straight up to his cousin's home when he emigrated north.  Samuel B. and Polly Erwin had Peter and Nancy Jane Dougan (1847- c. 1877), who married our great-great grandfather, Everett Rainey, who fought in the Civil War. See my earlier blogs.

We'll end with Marty Robbins singing the early 19th century popular American song. LONG LONG AGO 


Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Just a Kid: John Dougan in the American Revolutionary War

D.A.R. plaque at John Dougan's gravesite, Wayne County, Indiana
John Dougan (1763-1842), our 6th great-uncle, brother of Thomas Dougan (1746-1795) and our 5th great-grandfather James Dougan (1754-1837), was the 3rd Dougan to serve in the Revolutionary War in North Carolina. When he applied for a pension in October 1833 he was 70 years old and living in Wayne County, Indiana. I'm posting his full statement because his life and service shouldn't be forgotten. From John's court testimony we're able to pin down the year the Dougans moved from Pennsylvania down to North Carolina - "I was born in Lancaster County State of Pennsylvania January 9th, 1763; I was but six months old when my parents left Pennsylvania and moved to North Carolina." John was fifteen- going on sixteen years-old when he enlisted. I imagine his oldest brother and commander Thomas promised their mother he'd take care of the boy.

“I entered the service…in the year 1778, the day and month I do not
recollect, in Randolph County, North Carolina, as a volunteer private, in a
volunteer company of horse militia commanded by Captain THOMAS DOUGAN, and
served in said company to the best of my recollection, one year, during which
time we were stationed at Bell’s Mill in said county of Randolph, as a public
store of provisions, said BELL then being a Commissary to furnish provisions
for the Army of the Revolution. During said service, I found my own horse,
saddle, and bridle and guns.”

Randolph County, North Carolina
“Our company was raised for the purpose of guarding said public store, and
suppressing the Tories and disaffected, with whom that county was then largely
infected. During the year service aforesaid, we were employed in guarding said
public store, and in detached companies guarding provision wagons conveying
provisions to said store and in collecting beeves and other provisions . . . and in traversing the country looking out for Tories and protecting the country from their incursions.”

Ruin of Bell's Mill
“At the end of the said year of service, said Captain [Thomas] DOUGAN was advanced to
the rank of Major and WILLIAM GRAY, the ensign of said company was advanced to
the rank of Captain of said company and took the command thereof. . . .  I continued in said
company under Captain GRAY, Lieutenant NEWLAND and Ensign CLARK, and served as
a private until the termination of the war, during which time we were stationed
at Bell’s Mill, when not engaged in active service, until the latter part of 1782, to the best of my recollection. After that time until the close of the war, we were stationed when not engaged in active service, at the home of Colonel EDWARD SHARP, in County of Randolph, during all of which time I found my own horse, saddle and bridle, and arms.

“The first active service during said latter period of my service was a short
time after Captain GRAY took the command of said company. We were ordered out
under the command of Colonel JOHN COLLIER [John married Collier's daughter Martha (1764-1854) in 1784. The Colliers had come from Pennsylvania with the Dougans.] and Lieutenant ANDREW BALFOUR of County of Randolph, with a number of volunteers, in all about sixty men. We marched about twenty-five miles towards the east end of said named county to oppose a company of Tories under the command of one Colonel FANNEN [FANNING], a Tory Colonel who was embodying a Tory force in the county adjoining below ours. The second night after leaving our station, we encamped at the house of one JOHN NEEDHAM. During the night, we were attacked by Colonel FANNING and his Tory force. After a short conflict, we repulsed them with two of their men killed and four or five wounded. The next morning we pursued Colonel FANNING and two days after the conflict, we came upon one Captain MICHAEL ROBBINS, a Tory captain with ten or twelve Tories under his command. We dispersed them with three of their men killed. We then returned to our station at Bell’s Mill.”

[I posted Colonel Fanning's Wiki site in my last blog. His North Carolina History site is HERE]
“The next active service we were engaged in was three or four months
after the last named expedition, we were ordered out in the fall, I think in
September [the year I cannot recollect], against the Highland Scotch of North
Carolina, who were embodying a Tory force sixty or seventy miles from our
station in the highlands of said state. We were joined by one Colonel SAUNDERS
of Wake County, North Carolina, with a body of over one hundred men. Said
Colonel SAUNDERS took the command of the whole, and marched us into the
highlands and across Cape Fear River. We stole a march on the Tories by
marching all night one night, and took fourteen prisoners. Our company was
ordered to guard and did guard the prisoners to Hillsborough in Orange County,
North Carolina, the District jail. We lodged the prisoners in jail and returned
to our station.”

[After the Battle of Culloden in April 1746, many highlanders emigrated to Canada and America, especially North Carolina. They had fought the English for so long, I was surprised to learn most remained loyal to the Crown. Their activities in North Carolina during the Revolution are HERE]
“Another piece of service we rendered occurred a few weeks previous to the last
named expedition in defending the public store at our station. The store was
attacked by one Captain EDWARD FRANKLIN (a Tory captain commissioned by Lord
CORNWALLIS) and his company about fifteen in number. We repulsed them and the
next day we pursued them, overtook them, and killed FRANKLIN (the captain) and
one of his men, and dispersed the company.”

“The next active service that I now recollected that we were engaged in, I
think occurred in March 1782 (the spring after Lord CORNWALLIS surrendered).
Captain FANNING and his company consisting of forty or fifty Tories came into
our county and ravaged the country and killed Lieutenant Colonel BALFOUR and
Captain JOHN BRYAN in their own houses and burned my mother’s house and barn [Mary Kerr Dougan (1726-1824), our widowed 6th great-grandmother], Colonel COLLIER’s and Esquire MILLIGAN’s houses. We pursued them and overtook them and put them to flight, but the day being wet, our guns missed fire, so that we only wounded two men.” [Fanning surrendered soon after and in April married Sarah Carr. They moved to Florida, but eventually settled in Canada.]

“The next piece of active service and the last service I did during the
war occurred as follows: Colonel ELROD, Captain MICHAEL ROBBINS and Captain
SAMUEL STILL, Tory officers, were passing through said county of Randolph. They
killed one young man and wounded another. We pursued them several days and our
company separated into two parties. One part of the company overtook them, and
killed Colonel ELROD and Captain STILL. The part of the company I was in was
not present when they were killed. We marched over one hundred miles over the
Blue Ridge, from thence we returned to the station at Colonel SHARP’s, and
shortly afterwards were disbanded.”

“I cannot now state positively whether I received a discharge from my
captain. But I do recollect that vouchers for my services were placed in the
hands of my older brother, THOMAS DOUGAN, who took them to Hillsborough, North
Carolina and purchased land for me with them. To the best of my recollection,
the rate of pay that I received was twelve dollars per month for my services…
etc.”

Wayne County, Indiana, where John Settled
John married Martha Collier in 1784. They continued to live in North Carolina until they moved to Tennessee. According to his sworn testimony in court, he moved up from Tennessee to Indiana in 1816, settling in Wayne County, which makes him the earliest Dougan in Indiana. Perhaps it was he who lured the others northward. John died January 25, 1842 and in 1846 his widow Martha (aged 83) applied for a widow's pension.  John and Martha had eight daughters and two sons (who were given names so familiar in this large family - Margaret, Mary, Susannah, Rebecca, Ellen, Martha, Sarah, Jane, Thomas and John.
Dougan tombstone, Earlham Cemetery, Richmond, Wayne County, Indiana

Saturday, July 8, 2017

Colonel Thomas Dougan, our 6th Great-Uncle in the American Revolution



Colonel Thomas Dougan - our 6th Great-uncle

I've written about North Carolinian James Dougan (1754-1837), our 5th great-grandfather, and his service as a rebel major, promoted to colonel, in the American Revolutionary War HERE.  Because the Dougans were a close-knit clan, it's appropriate that our family tree include other Dougans. My previous blog concerned the cold-blooded hangings by American Tories of two patriotic Dougan cousins in South Carolina HERE. The present blog is about James Dougan's older brother, Colonel Thomas Dougan (1746-1795), and what we know of his service in the war. He was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, after his grandparents, father (Thomas Hill Dougan (1719-1769)), uncles and a sister arrived from northern Ireland. In about 1763, with his parents and some brothers, Thomas moved to what became Randolph County, North Carolina. He must have taken up land near his parents' holdings (his father purchased 520 acres at Deep River that year). Thomas didn't marry until 1782/3, and then to a girl 20 years his junior, Isabell Sharp, who was born in 1766 in North Carolina after her family moved down from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, perhaps with the Dougans. Her older sister, Hannah (b. 1760 in Lancaster County) married out 5th great-grandfather James Dougan in 1780. It appears Thomas looked around and discovered Isabell had grown up. The Sharp family also had come from northern Ireland and the families may have been of long acquaintance.


Paxton Presbyterian Church in present-day Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, where the Dougans worshiped.

When Randolph County was formed from Guilford County in 1779, Thomas Dougan was a captain of the militia,  promoted to major the following year. 
Randolph County, North Carolina
Some say Thomas Dougan's war service resembles the plot of "The Patriot." Perhaps we should all watch that movie again. It's difficult to understand the circumstances Thomas Dougan fought in in without some insight into the activities of the American Tory, Colonel David Fanning HERE.

Fanning was notorious for his savagery, displayed in his own writings, The Narrative of Col. David Fanning:
. . .[We] then proceeded on to their Col. Collier [cousin of Thomas Dougan] belonging to the said county of Randolph and on our way we burnt several Rebel Houses, and catched several prisoners, the night coming on and the distance to the Said Colonel's was so far it was late before we left there.  He made his Escape having Recd 3 Balls through his shirt, but I took care to Destroy the whole of his plantation. I then pursued our Route and came to one Capt John Bryan and Other Rebel officer, which I told him if he would come out of the house I would Give him a parole, which he Refused saying that he had taken a parole from Lord Cornwallis, swearing by God he had Broke that and said he would also Break our Tory Paroles, with that I Immediately ordered the house to be Set on fire, which was instantly done, and as soon as he see the flames of the fire increasing he called Out to me and desired me to spare his house for his wife and Children's sake and he would walk out with his arms in his hands. I immediately answered him that if he would walk out that his house and property should be saved for his wife and children, which he came out, and when he came out he Said here Damn you, here I am, with that he Received two Balls, the one through his head and the other through his Body--he came out with his Gun cocked and sword at the same time--the next day following being the 13th March was their Election day to appoint Assembly men and was to meet at Randolph Court house, which I proceeded on in Order to see the Gentleman Representatives, their Getting intelligence of my coming, they Immediately Scattered which I prevented their doing anything that day---from thence I pursued on to one Major Dugins ]Thomas Dougan] House or Plantation and Destroyed all his property, and all the Rebel Officers property in the settlement for the distance of 40 miles . . .
. . . [Governor Burk] ordered all the Light horse to Depart from their Different Stations till they had received Orders from the Governor and Council, as I was also Obliged to lay neutral until--receiving their answer, which was to be upon terms of honour between Both Sides, with which the Different Captains Commanding the Rebel Light Horse wrote to me respecting the same. . . 

[Thomas Dougan's letter to Fanning]  Sir, I Received your Letter which Gives me great Satisfaction to hear that you and Some of the Officers have come upon terms of peace, which is all I would Crave, but I Should be glad that for one of the Officers in Company should meet you and have some Conversation together, and be upon honour, and if we can come upon terms agreeable to both. I Should Immediately march my Company home. So I will be at Mr Mullins this Evening at two O'Clock and if you will meet and Converse across the River or any other place you will Choose. 
I am Sir Your Obt
Thomas Dougan, Capt of Light horse
April 12th 1782                                                    

[Note: This letter must be from Fanning's own collection, but Dougan should have been a major by this date. See below]

Summary of Thomas Dougan's service on the website, Patriot Leaders of North Carolina:
- In early 1776, Thomas Dougan was a known Captain under Lt. Col. James Martin in the Guilford County Regiment of Militia. His company was too late to participate in the battle of Moore's Creek Bridge or the subsequent rounding up of Loyalist prisoners. It is very likely that he was commissioned as a Captain as early as September of 1775, but this Author has found no definitive evidence thereof.
- On February 2, 1779, the NC Provincial Congress created Randolph County out of Guilford County, and soon thereafter Capt. Thomas Dougan reported to Col. John Collier (a relative) of the newly-created Randolph County Regiment of Militia.
- In September of 1780, Capt. Thomas Dougan was assigned to Col. William Richardson Davie in the newly-created NC State Cavalry-Western District. Capt. Thomas Dougan led his company at the battle of Charlotte on September 26, 1780. HERE   This unit was disbanded in December of 1780, and upon his return to his old regiment he was promoted to Major under Col. John Collier (apparently a relative).
- Maj. Thomas Dougan led a detachment of the Randolph County Regiment of Militia at the battle of Eutaw Springs, SC on September 8, 1781. HERE
- Sometime during late September of 1781, the Loyalist Col. David Fanning captured Maj. Thomas Dougan (probably on his way back from the battle of Eutaw Springs, SC) and took him to Wilmington, where he was retained until the British evacuated the town on November 13, 1781. Prisoners were simply left behind as the British marched out of the town and boarded their troop ships. (Note: There is a story that he was to be hanged, but Tories who were his neighbors interceded)
- In March of 1782, Maj. Thomas Dougan led a small detachment of the Randolph County Regiment of Militia against the Loyalist Col. John Elrod and two of his men at the skirmish known as the Forks of the Yadkin. Col. Elrod and one man were hanged after their capture.
- In mid-1782, Thomas Dougan was promoted to Lt. Colonel in the Randolph County Regiment of Militia under Col. James Dougan (our 5th great-grandfather) who had recently been promoted due to the resignation of Col. John Collier.
- In the 2Q of 1783, Thomas Dougan was promoted to second Colonel, alongside Col. Edward Sharpe (either the Dougan brothers' father-in-law or brother-in-law), in the Randolph County Regiment of Militia, replacing Col. James Dougan, who had recently resigned. He retained this position until the end of the war later in 1783.
- Thomas Dougan, the son of Thomas Hill Dougan and Mary Kerr (our 6th great-grandparents) was born in 1746 in Lancaster County, PA. In 1782, Thomas Dougan married Isabella Sharp, and they had six known children - Sarah, Thomas S., Mary, Eleanor, Jean (Jane), and Washington. He died on September 7, 1795 in Randolph County, NC.


After the war Thomas Dougan served in the North Carolina state senate in 1783, 1784 and 1788 and was a delegate to the constitutional convention of 1788. He donated 100 acres for the site of the Randolph County court house in what became Ashboro.

The Guilford Battle Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution has placed a marker on the grave of Thomas Dougan in 2006.

In his will, dated 30th day of August 1795 (he must have known he was dying at a rather early age, his wife then pregnant with their last child, Thomas, born December 1795), he leaves his interest in his "lands lying in the Western Territory" (bounty lands granted for his war service) to his brother Robert Dougan, two Sharp relatives and a Martin, to dispose of the land.  And that land in Tennessee will play a role in a future blog.

Monday, June 26, 2017

South Carolina Dugans in the American Revolution


Painting of the Battle of Cowpens, South Carolina, January 17, 1781
 This is a story about the South Carolina branch of the Dougan family, the first cousins of our 5th great-grandfather James Dougan of North Carolina. These three male cousins also served in the American Revolution and their experience as a family demonstrates that it wasn't a gentleman's war, but a vicious hate-filled conflict that pitted neighbor against neighbor - no more so than in the Carolinas.

When Thomas and Eleanor Dougan (our 7th great-grandparents) came from Donegal, Ireland, to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in the first half of the 18th century, they brought sons Robert, Joseph, and Thomas (our 6th great-grandfather), and a daughter.  Before the family moved down to North Carolina Colony about 1763, the oldest son Robert, who spelled his name Dugan, had already moved to South Carolina Colony with a group of Scots-Irish from Lancaster County, his wife Mary and three sons, James, Robert and Thomas (there will continue to be duplicate first names in Dougan/Dugan descent).

 This branch settled in the Fairforest Creek area, now in Union County. On 9 December 1754, Robert Dugan purchased 497 acres on the south side of Fairforest Creek, "including the little river path." The deed was filed in Anson County, North Carolina. In fact, the settlers believed they were living in North Carolina at the time. They discovered their mistake a few months later when Dugan and 62 other settlers petitioned the Governor General of North Carolina Colony to protect them from the Indians, who had attacked, robbed and killed cattle, horses and some settlers. They wanted a fort built between the Enoree River and the headwaters of Thickety Creek (which still bears this lovely quaint name).  In 1756 he made a complaint that the Cherokee had broken into his cabin and stolen bedding and 9 bells worth over 4 pounds sterling. When he made his sworn statement, he signed his name Robt O Dugan (the word 'of' is written under the O - he still used Irish signage. You'll recall he was born in northeast Ireland).

Anson County, North Carolina

The Dugans helped to establish the Fairforest Presbyterian Church in Union County in 1765, the first Presbyterian church in South Carolina. They didn't have a pastor until the 1790s, but an occasional preacher was sent from Pennsylvania and New York for a visit through the south, which must have been quite an undertaking.

Present-day Union County, South Carolina

According to The Annals of Newberry County by John Belton O'Neall, by the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, some of the family, in particular Thomas Dugan (Robert's son), settled in the Enoree and Duncan Creek settlement area of what became Newberry County.

Newberry County, South Carolina
 The author declared that all the families in the area were Whigs (pro-independence).  According to O'Neall, Robert's son Thomas (1748-1822), who supplied forage and provisions to the American forces, became a captain in the Revolution, commanding a company of militia, who were scouts and, the author believed, fought at King's Mountain. After the organization of the Upper Regiment (of militia,) of Newberry County,  he had its command as its colonel. He and his wife Mary Johnston Dugan had eight sons. They and their families are buried at King's Creek Cemetery.
Colonel Thomas  and Mary Dugan's Tombstone
The colonel's brother Robert, Jr. served from the Newberry District -  1779, as a lieutenant under Capt. Levi Casey and Col. James Williams; 1780-1781, as a lieutenant under Maj. Samuel Taylor and possibly as a captain.  The third son, John also served.

Apparently Col. Thomas, Robert, Jr. and John Dugan were at the Battle of Cowpens, which after numerous American defeats was the battle instrumental in turning the tide against the British. By October, 1781, the war ended with Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown.  Battle of Cowpens HERE

 After the battle the brothers Robert and John went home for a "sly" visit to their mother. "Sly" because the Up Country of South Carolina was rife with American Tories. In the middle of the night, their mother heard knocking on the door and a dozen or more voices demanding entrance. She thrust one of the brothers into the fireplace opening. The other threw himself from the upper window, hoping to escape under cover of darkness, but "shivered" a bone in his leg, which caused his capture. The Dugans' Tory neighbors fired a small house in the yard and by its light proceeded to hang Robert and John from the limb of a nearby oak. With broadswords, they hewed off their victims' limbs, flesh and heads before their mother's eyes. After they left, she gathered the remains of her murdered boys and buried them on a hillside (probably with the help of a trusted neighbor). O'Neill in his book claims that the Turner boys were the culprits, in retribution for the death of a brother.  It appears that Colonel Thomas later hanged some of the murderers at the crossroads.  In September 1785, Colonel Thomas signed a receipt for pay on behalf of his dead brother Robert and perhaps for his dead brother John.

So prevalent in Scots-Irish history in Britain and Ireland, blood feuds continued in the United States. I just wanted you to think on your first cousins, 7 times removed, and the dangers of being an American patriot.

As a footnote, it appears Mariah Dugan, a granddaughter of Colonel Thomas Dugan, married a William Turner, who was born after the war, so perhaps that feud came to an end.







Thursday, June 15, 2017

Fierce Patriot of the American Revolutionary War: Colonel James Dougan

The North Carolina Militia probably dressed like these men, but they could load and shoot three times a minute.
There were five Dougan brothers living in North Carolina Colony when the American Revolution began. Four of them served with American forces.  Many of our ancestors came from southern England, but the Dougans were what we call Scots-Irish, although they called themselves Anglo-Irish, their ancestors having left the Scottish lowlands for northern Ireland probably in Elizabethan times or when Cromwell was in power in the 17th century.  It's possible the Dougans had originated in Ireland and became Protestant, but since the name is found in the Scottish lowlands, I'll assume this particular family was originally Scot. On their mother, Mary Kerr's side, these five brothers were descended from Border Scottish, who had always been a warlike people. Both sides of this family would have spoken English, not Gaelic, although when their families settled in Pennsylvania, the Quakers had difficulty understanding their lilting cadence. They came not as indentured servants, but paid their way in large groups, most Anglo-Irish arriving between 1717 and 1776.

When the Anglo-Irish began arriving in Philadelphia in 1717, a Philadelphia Quaker named Jonathan Dickinson complained that the streets of the his city were teeming with "a swarm of people . . . strangers to our Laws and Customs, and even to our language." The new immigrants dressed in outlandish ways. The men were tall and lean, with hard, weather-beaten faces. They wore felt hats, loose sackcloth shirts close-belted at the waist, baggy trousers, thick yarn stockings and wooden shoes "shod like horses feet with iron." The young women startled Quaker Philadelphians by the sensuous appearance of their full bodices, tight waists, bare legs and skirts as scandalously short as an English under-shift. The older women came ashore in long dresses of a curious cut. Some buried their faces in full-sided bonnets; others folded handkerchiefs over their heads in quaint and foreign patterns.  Quoted from Albion's Seed by David Hackett Fischer, p 605-6.

A further word about the Borderers and the Anglo-Irish who immigrated to America during the 18th century.  They were poor, but proud. And that fierce and stubborn pride became a cultural fact of high importance in the American region they came to dominate - the western backcountry of the colonies and the expanding frontier. Years later a Borderer descendant was heard to pray, "Lord, grant that I may always be right, for thou knowest I am hard to turn." They were mostly Presbyterian and their variant golden rule was "Do unto others as they threaten to do unto you." They were clannish, carried knives and guns and didn't trust the government.

The Quakers found these new immigrants so disconcerting and prone to violence, they encouraged them to settle in the "back parts" of Pennsylvania Colony, hoping to make them a frontier buffer between themselves and the Indians. As stated in my previous blog, the immigrant Dougans settled in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, before emigrating south to Guilford County (later Randolph County),North Carolina. 
Randolph County, North Carolina ,where the Dougans lived, still part of Guilford County in 1776.

Now we'll turn to our 5th great-grandfather, James Dougan (1754-1837). Below is a summary of his application for a Revolutionary War pension, which was granted subsequent to his death in Winchester, Franklin County, Tennessee.

 James Dougan S3306, Franklin County, West Tennessee #26596, $201.66/year, issued 19 March 1834. James Dougan aged 80 years last January states: I was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, on 6 January1754, according to a copy of the family record which is in my possession. In 1776 I was a resident of Guilford County, North Carolina, and volunteered for three months as an ensign under Capt. John Collier in an operation against the Cherokee Indians. The regiment was organized at Guilford court house and was commanded by Colonel Martin. We marched through Salisbury and met with other troops at the mulberry fields on the Catawba, commanded by Colonel Griffith Rutherford, and crossed the Blue Ridge, marching against Indian Towns on the headwaters of the Tennessee River. We remained several weeks, marching from town to town, destroying towns and their growing crops. The Indians having fled, we remained in Indian Country several weeks, marching from town to town, eating up and destroying the Indian crops. After performing this service, I returned home, having served a full term of three months, for which I got a discharge.
Catawba River, North Carolina

 [Note: The Cherokee Nation followed Great Britain's order to attack settlers on the southern frontier, and struck first. Virginia and South Carolina raised militias, and North Carolina sent Rutherford with 2400 militia to scour the Oconaluftee and Tuckasegge river valleys, and the headwaters of the Little Tennessee and Hiwassee. Not long after leaving Fort McGahey on July 23, Rutherford's militia, accompanied by a large contingent of Catawba warriors, encountered an ambush by the Cherokee at the Battle of Cowee Gap in what is now western North Carolina. After defeating the attackers, he proceeded to a designated rendezvous with the South Carolina militia (which had also been sweeping through Cherokee towns). Rutherford's militia traversed Swannanoa Gap in the Blue Ridge on September 1, and reached the outskirts of the Out, Valley, and Middle Towns on September 14, where they started burning towns and crops. In all, Williamson, Pickens, and Rutherford destroyed more than 50 towns, burned the houses and food stores, destroyed the orchards, slaughtered livestock, and killed hundreds of Cherokee. They sold captives into slavery, and of these many were transported to the Caribbean.]
James Dougan's summary continues: In 1777 I again volunteered to serve another three months as an Ensign under Capt. Robert Bell. We rendezvoused at Salisbury, where the regiment was commanded by Francis Locke and marched to Camden, South Carolina, where we remained until our three-month term of service expired and I was discharged. All troops were commanded by General Rutherford. [Biography of General Griffith Rutherford, another immigrant from Northern Ireland HERE]

 In 1779 James Dougan volunteered for five months and served as Lieutenant, serving under Capt. Enoch Davis in Col. Locke's Regiment, General Rutherford's Brigade:We rendezvoused at Salisbury and marched to Purrysburg, South Carolina, then the headquarters of the American Army Commanded by General John Ashe.  
Purrysburg is in Jasper County, South Carolina

During our stay at this place, our detachment under command of Ebert was cut off from the army at the Savannah River. We engaged in battle at Brier Creek, in eastern Georgia, in which the Americans were defeated.  Afterward, I joined a detachment that engaged a group of the enemy marauding along the Savannah River, which we defeated in battle. Captain Wilson had command of troops at the battle and later of a picket guard at the White House [headquarters?] where we remained, performing camp and garrison duties. After my discharge I returned home with William Gray, a private. [Battle of Brier Creek HERE]
 
Battle of Briers Creek was in Screven County, Georgia
In 1780, now a Major in the militia of newly-created Randolph County (out of Guilford Co.), North Carolina, Dougan volunteered to serve for three months in Collier's Regiment: We rendezvoused at Salisbury and then marched into South Carolina. The [militia] brigade was under the command of General [Caswell] and General Horatio Gates was at Rugeley's Mills. The enemy's headquarters under General Cornwallis was at Camden.  The two armies met about equidistant between these two camps. [The Battle of Camden]  The American army being defeated, it dispersed and I returned home. 

The Battle of Camden was in Kershaw County, S.C.

 General [Caswell] having orders for the troops to reassemble, I rendezvoused at Hillsboro [North Carolina] under this officer. I served in the neighborhood and in Rowan County, watching the motions of the enemy and guarding the county until my term of service was over and I was regularly discharged.

The Battle of Camden on 18 August 1780 was the worst defeat for the Americans in the Revolution and we should be truly glad our 5th great-grandfather survived it, else we wouldn't be here. James Dougan was a major, but we don't know how many men he actually commanded in the battle. Holding its ground until after the Virginia militia fled, the North Carolina militia suffered 63 killed, and 82 wounded and captured by the British. Was our ancestor heroic? I expect he was. He also must have had a fast horse to escape Tarleton's cavalry that harried the escaping Americans. Read about the Battle of Camden HERE 

Here is the summary of Colonel James Dougan's military service on the website Patriot Leaders in North Carolina:

1776, James Dougan was commissioned as an Ensign under Capt. John Collier and Col. James Martin in the Guilford County Regiment of Militia. This unit marched with Brig. Gen. Griffith Rutherford in the Cherokee Expedition of August to November of 1776.
1777, James Dougan was an Ensign under Capt. Robert Bell and Col. James Martin in the Guilford County Regiment of Militia.
In October of 1778, James Dougan was commissioned as a Lieutenant under Capt. Enoch Davis and Lt. Colonel John Peasley in the Guilford County Regiment of Militia, both attached to Col. Francis Locke of the Rowan County Regiment of Militia during the Purrysburg, SC expedition. This unit participated in the battle of Briar Creek, GA on 3/3/1779. This unit returned home in April of 1779.
On 2/2/1779, the NC General Assembly created Randolph County out of Guilford County. When Lt. James Dougan returned home from the Purrysburg, SC expedition he was now living in Randolph County. It is entirely probable that he was commissioned as a Captain in the Randolph County Regiment of Militia in 1779 or 1780, but there is no record of it, nor does he mention it in his later federal pension application.
1780, James Dougan was commissioned as a Major under Col. John Collier in the Randolph County Regiment of Militia, and both officers participated in the battles of Little Lynches Creek, SC (8/11/1780) and Camden, SC (8/16/1780).
In the 1Q of 1781, James Dougan was commissioned as a Lt. Colonel under Col. John Collier in the Randolph County Regiment of Militia. Lt. Col. James Dougan led the Randolph County Regiment of Militia at the battles of Guilford Court House (3/15/1781) and Raft Swamp (10/15/1781).
On 5/12/1782, Col. John Collier resigned and soon thereafter James Dougan was commissioned as a full Colonel in the Randolph County, alongside Col. Edward Sharpe. Col. James Dougan resigned in early 1783, and he was replaced by Col. Thomas Dougan, his brother.
 In James's pension application, his brother, the Rev. Robert Dougan of Franklin County, aged 69 the following December, vouched for him. Micah Taul and James Keith vouched for both the Dougans' reputations and character. On 16 March 1834 John B. Forester, Congressman, certified that he was acquainted with James and Rev. Robert Dougan and vouched for them.
Our 5th great-grandfather's signature on his pension application, age 80
In 1780, either before or after the Battle of Camden, James Dougan married Hannah Sharp (b. 1760 Somerset County, Pennsylvania - d. 1831 Franklin Co., Tennessee). They married in Randolph County, North Carolina. He had purchased in 1779 an additional 100 acres "on the south side of Deep River adjoining his own deeded land."  In 1784 James Dougan was a county commissioner, assisting in deciding where to build a courthouse (its first court session held in 1786) in what became the town of Johnsonville, platted on 600 acres owned by his brother Thomas Dougan. In 1788 James was granted a war bounty of 3000 acres on the Obion River in western Tennessee (unsettled by whites).  By the 1790 census, he and Hannah already had five sons and two daughters. In 1791 they left North Carolina for what I think was Sumner County, Tennessee, where they lived three years. His brother Robert married there and they seemed to move about as a clan.
Sumner County, Tennessee

They removed to Logan County, Kentucky, where their house and goods burned, including James's military discharges. 
 
Logan County, Kenucky, just above Sumner Co. Tennessee

About 1806 or 1807 they settled in what became Franklin County, Tennessee. 
Franklin County, Tennessee, established in 1808
 Because James Dougan had died 10 Feb. 1837, in Winchester, Franklin County, Tennessee, a 26 July 1838 Note in the pension file shows that payment was made to Mary Noe, a child of James Dougan, for $210.66.

I'll write about his brothers' services in the American Revolution in my next blog and how so many of the Dougans moved as a clan to that war bounty land in western Tennessee and then up to Indiana.

Sunday, June 4, 2017

Nancy Jane Dougan (1847-c 1877): Her Family - Ireland to North Carolina Colony



Standard of Ireland 1542-1801

Our great-grandfather, James Samuel Raney (1868-1954), was named for each of his grandfathers. His mother Nancy Jane Dougan (1847-c1877), married Everett Rainey (1844-1899) when he returned from the Civil War, and later died in a house fire with her daughter Sarah about 1877HERE

The Dougans moved as an extended family group from western Tennessee to southern Indiana about 1831. Samuel Dougan (1820-1870), our 3rd great-grandfather, was among them. But I'm getting ahead of my story of this pioneering family with roots in County Donegal, Ireland, so I'll start at the beginning.

Thomas Dougan (1685-1776), our 7th great-grandfather, was born in County Donegal, Ireland.
County Donegal in dark green up in northwest Ireland
A couple of years back, before I knew we had this ancestor, Jay and I drove from Galway in western Ireland up to Derry, Northern Ireland, bypassing County Donegal because it had only a few winding roads on the map and looked really mountainous, and we had only that day to reach our destination.
County Donegal
Some claim Thomas was born in the town of Donegal in the south of the county, some say otherwise. The English gained full control over Ulster, including County Donegal, in 1607, and the region became a plantation (meaning a settlement), the Catholic Irish forced out to be resettled by Protestant Lowland Scots and English. His mother was Katherine Kerr (1658-1688), our 8th great-grandmother, allegedly born in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland, who married in 1684 Benjamin Dougan (1655-1750) our 8th great-grandfather, born in Donegal. They both died there. 

Our 7th great-grandparents, Thomas Dougan (1685-1776) and Eleanor O'Connor (1695-1784) married in Donegal about 1709 and had three sons and a daughter in Ireland, including Thomas Hill Dougan (1719-1769), our 6th great-grandfather.  This family immigrated to Pennsylvania Colony after 1723, possibly as late as the early 1740s.  

"The Scots – Irish who poured into America from Ulster were middle class farmers and craftsmen who came from poor rural counties of Northern Ireland where English rule had grown increasingly severe and where the 1740 famine in Ulster hastened their departure. They were nearly all Presbyterians. Arriving in Philadelphia, they made their way westward to Lancaster and Harrisburg." 

Present-day Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Thomas Hill Dougan (1719-1769) married Mary Kerr (1726-1824) in 1744. Mary's family had immigrated from lowland Scotland. All of their six children were born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, including James Dougan (1754-1837), our 5th great-grandfather. Most of the Dougans, including their aged immigrant parents Thomas and Eleanor O'Connell Dougan, moved with a group of Quakers overland down to North Carolina by 1763, where Thomas Hill Dougan bought 520 acres at Deep River, in what became Randolph County. A surveyor called North Carolina "delicious country" and so it was.

Years ago I visited the county museum in Greensboro and saw a large Conestoga wagon, manufactured in Pennsylvania. By 1765 they were being used heavily on the Great Wagon Road south.
Conestoga wagon dipping in center so the goods wouldn't shift.

I never imagined that my ancestors may have used one to move their households south on the Great Wagon Road from Philadelphia to North Carolina because I didn't know we had ancestors who settled there.
Great Wagon Road, originally called The Warriors Path because it had been in use by Native Americans for hundreds of years
Thomas Hill Dougan died in 1769 and his widow Mary was granted the administration of his estate in 1770.

These ever-so-great grandparents had a daughter and five sons in their prime of manhood. A few years later the American Revolution began. In my next blog, I'll tell you of the sons' participation in that war.

Saturday, May 27, 2017

Lord Dunmore's "Little" War and the Roberts Family

Where the tip of Virginia meets Tennessee on the Clinch River is where John Roberts and his family were killed by the Native American Logan.

I have been considering having an ancestor, collateral though John Roberts was, being killed along with his family on September 24, 1774 by a man who has descended into history as a sympathetic historical figure. It's Shawnee/Mingo chief John Logan I mean. In my previous blog, HERE, I couldn't bring myself to discuss Logan, so only inserted a link to his Wikipedia page. Actions have consequences.  If some whites hadn't killed Logan's family, the John Roberts family would have lived longer.

It appears that John's brothers, William Roberts (our 5th great-grandfather), Henry and David, volunteered shortly after John Roberts' family was slain to fight the Indians in what became known as Lord Dunmore's War. HERE  
 
John Murray, 4th Lord Dunmore, last Colonial Governor of Virginia Colony, by Joshua Reynolds

They served alongside Daniel Boone in Captain Looney's company for 49 days. The culmination of the Virginia militias and hundreds of frontiersmen from the back country banding together to attempt to put an end to Native American depredations on land the colonists wanted to settle was the Battle of Point Pleasant. HERE This battle  has been called the most extensive and bitterly contested Indian battle in American history, with far-reaching results. At the time it occurred, it aroused world-wide interest; English, French and German newspapers published extensive articles descriptive of the battle. Some call it the actual opening battle of the American Revolution.

The Roberts brothers didn't make it to the battle, but were assigned to patrol the frontier. Their listed names, William, David and Henry, grouped together, are on the Fincastle, Virginia, militia list under Captain David Looney (sometimes as "Robertson," sometimes corrected to "Roberts") indicating they were paid for serving 49 days in the autumn of 1774 (which would explain why William Roberts waited until the following spring to settle his brother's estate in Fincastle County). It appears these men remained in the Clinch River area (near their homes) to build forts. Their families had taken shelter at Looney's Fort, on the present site of the Blountsville, Tennessee, Central High School, a few miles beneath the western tip of the Virginia state line.  Originally seven additional militia forts were to be constructed in 1774.  

"Capt. William Russell was to command four of the forts on the Lower Clinch River and Capt. Daniel Smith was to command three forts on the Upper Clinch River. These forts were to be erected by the local militia men supervised by Colonel William Christian who had been sent out to the frontier by Col. William Preston who was commanding officer of the Fincastle County Militia. The forts were generally named for the landowners where they were located and/or the military commanders. Many of them had multiple names as landowners and commanders changed." Most of these forts were erected in what is now Russell County, Virginia, so they weren't so very close to those few settlers in what became northeast Tennessee.

Present-day Russell County, Virginia

Present Sullivan County, Tennessee (Hawkins County to the left), the Roberts families having settled on the county lines.

Now I must tell you that in doing this latest research, I discovered that another William Roberts served with the Fincastle County militia, and he had a brother Cornelius (c.1746-1788), who also served, and was later killed and scalped by the Cherokee while hunting ginseng in the Black Mountains of Russell County, Virginia. (Ginseng was used for medicine - still hunted, it's now an endangered plant due to over-harvesting). In looking up this other Roberts family on Ancestry.com, someone has listed a John Roberts, born in 1771, as this William's son (with no further information).  Is this our 4th great-grandfather and not the John Roberts a researcher claimed was born in 1784? The 1771 date is correct and the father's name is William (1740-1776), married Elizabeth Walling (1748-1847). But this family appears to have settled in what is now the Elk Creek section of Grayson County, Virginia, not Sullivan or Hawkins County (in what became Tennessee). Hawkins County was written in John Roberts' death information as the place he was born to William Roberts.  
Present-day Grayson County, Virginia

Those are the only hints, nothing about the young John Roberts' marriage or moving to Pulaski County, Kentucky, as our 4th great-grandfather did. Perhaps, though, they were all related to some degree. This goes to show how difficult it can be to separate out our ancestors with common names, especially when so many records have been destroyed in "burned" counties (by incidental fires and those set by the British during the American Revolution and by Federal troops during the American Civil War.